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Transmission lines

TOR 300 DPL provides absolutely selective current differential protection for overhead lines and cables in MV, HV and EHV networks. Its flexible hardware design permits applications on power lines connected to different busbars configurations, including single, double, ring, meshed or 1½ breaker busbars with single or double breakers per protected power line. TOR 300 DPL provides additionally three-zone distance and directional earth fault overcurrent protection together with all necessary control and automation functionality for a single line end.

Each device installed at the protected line terminal comprises one subset of phase segregated current differential protection, providing this way reliable single or three-phase instantaneous tripping at all line ends for all types of internal faults and remains stable for all types of external faults as well as for power swings and loss of synchronism over the protected power line. Phase segregated current measurement at protected line ends provides also reliable phase selection for all types of faults, including simultaneous and evolving faults on complex line configurations.

Line current differential protection is implemented with restrained current differential function and high-set unrestrained element. Restrained measuring unit secures excellent sensitivity for high resistive faults, additional algorithm prevents unnecessary tripping for external faults with CT saturation. Unrestrained differential element is designed for fast fault clearing with high short circuit currents.

The IEDs may communicate continuously according to IEEE C37.94 protocol over two parallel communication channels, securing this way continuous backup communication link. Communication may be provided by either: dedicated optical communication lines between devices, or by using digital communication network - networks with multiplexing equipment. Combining two different communication links increases the availability of complete communication system.

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A complete three zone distance protection functionality (see TOR 300 DIS) can be also included in TOR 300 DPL IEDs. It provides independent line backup protection in case of communication failure as well as continuous backup protection for remote power lines. Special functional block for line fault detection prevents false tripping of line differential protection for faults on the secondary side of the power transformers tapped to the protected line.

Protected objects

  • two or three terminal overhead lines
  • cable lines
  • combined overhead – cable lines
  • different busbar versions at line terminals

Main functions

  • PLDF (87L) - line current differential protection
  • PDIC (21P)- phase-to-phase distance protection (three zones)
  • PDIC (21G) - phase-to-earth distance protection (three zones)
  • PDEF (67N) - directional earth fault overcurrent protection (four zones)
  • PIOC/PTOC (50/51) - instantaneous and time delayed overcurrent protections
  • PVCB (60) - fuse failure protection
  • PPBR (46) - open wire protection
  • RBRF (50BF) - breaker failure protection
  • PVCB/PTOC (60P) - automatic current load shedding protection
  • RFLO - fault locator
  • RDRE - disturbance and event recorder
  • 50LR - acceleration of distance and directional earth fault overcurrent protection
  • phase selector
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Full scheme distance protection as built in TOR 300 DIS devices comprises six independent impedance measuring zones, each of them operating independently in six different fault loops: three for phase-to-earth faults and three for phase-to-phase faults. Such design secures, together with additional phase selection functionality, reliable operation for different fault types on protected HV, EHV and UHV power lines as well as back-up protection for faults on remote power system objects (lines, busbars, transformers, etc.).

Quadrilateral impedance characteristic secures together with adaptive load encroachment area maximum possible sensitivity for earth faults within the protected zone.  Separate directional elements in forward and reverse direction secure correct directional discrimination for each fault loop and operate correctly also for close-in faults.

Two independent power swing detection functions (impedance based and well proven oscillating current based) prevent unnecessary operation of distance protection during different oscillations in the protected power system.

All this, together with flexible hardware and multiple additional PAC algorithms, allows TOR 300 DIS IEDs to be adjusted to your very specific needs, including complex bay control functionality as well as single/three phase tripping and autoreclosing with dead-line check, synchrocheck and phasing functionality for reliable breaker closing under demanding system conditions.

Protected objects

  • single or multi-terminal overhead lines
  • cable lines
  • bus-coupler breaker
  • bypass breaker

  Main functions

  • PDIS (21P) – phase-to-phase distance protection (five zones)
  • PDIS (21G) – phase-to-earth distance protection (five zones)
  • PDEF (67N) - directional earth fault overcurrent protection (eight zones)
  • PIOC/PTOC (50/51) - instantaneous and time delayed overcurrent protections
  • PVCB/PTOC (60P) - automatic current load shedding protection
  • PVCB (60) – fuse failure protection
  • PPBR (46) - open –wire protection
  • RBRF (50BF) - breaker failure protection
  • PTUV (27P) - undervoltage protection
  • PFRQ/PTUF (81U) - underfrequency protection
  • PREC (79) - autoreclosing
  • RFLO - fault locator
  • RDRE - disturbance and event recorder
  • 50LR – acceleration of distance and directional earth fault overcurrent protection
  • remote tripping logic
  • phase selector
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The breaker failure protection device TOR 300 ABC provides protection and control of HV, EHV, UHV circuit breakers. The device can be also used for full bay control according to switching commands received from relay protection, remote control (SCADA system) or local (manual) operators and continuously supervised by built-in comprehensive interlocking system.

Breaker failure protection function is included as a main function in TOR 300 ABC devices. In case of a detected breaker failure, based on phase current measurement, it can initiate the repeated breaker opening command on the second tripping coil (if available) and initiate opening of all the breakers connected to the same busbar.

Protected objects

  • singe-pole breakers
  • three –pole breakers

Main functions

  • RBRF (50BF)  -breaker failure protection includes:
    • protection against pole discordance and open phase conditions
    • control of breaker tripping time  
    • control of breaker closing/opening times
    • continuous supervision of breaker closing/opening circuits by continuous measurement of their currents and voltages
    • mechanical and switching life-time monitoring

TOR 300 BCU provides protection and control of circuit-breaker. The device can be used for full bay control according to relay protection commands, remote control commands and manual switching.

Single-pole as well as three-pole automatic reclosing is available according to a specific user request in all TOR 300 BCU devices. Single-pole automatic reclosing operates on the basis of the information received from external protection devices, current measuring circuits for protection of healthy phases, special arc elimination detector (makes possible adaptive single pole reclosing dead time) and special measuring element, which detects successful single pole reclosing at the remote line end, preventing this way second reclosing on permanent faults. Three-pole automatic reclosing operates together with phase selection, dead-line detection, synchro-check and phasing functions, securing reliable reclosing for multiphase faults on protected power lines.

Breaker failure protection function is included as a standard function in TOR 300 ABC devices. In case of a detected breaker failure, based on phase current measurement, it can initiate the repeated breaker opening command on the second tripping coil (if available) and initiate opening of all the breakers connected to the same busbar.

Protected objects

  • singe-pole breakers
  • three –pole breakers

Main functions

  • PREC (79) - three-phase/single-phase autoreclosing
  • RSYN (25) – synchronism- check;
  • CSWI - control of breaker (open/close)
  • CILO - comprehensive system interlocking
  • RBRF (50BF)  -breaker failure protection includes:
    • protection against pole discordance and open phase conditions
    • control of breaker tripping time 
    • control of breaker closing/opening times
    • continuous supervision of breaker closing/opening circuits by continuous measurement of their currents and voltages
    • mechanical and switching life-time monitoring
  • RFLO - fault locator
  • RDRE - disturbance and event recorder

The TOR 300 FLO fault location IEDs have been developed by our specialists as a very accurate centralised fault location system, using at one calculation point information from up to four mutually connected power lines with up to 32 different line sections. Applied fault location algorithm makes it possible to consider this way also the complex line configurations caused by the heterogeneity of specific line parameters, the presence of sections with different transformer neutral earthing points, presence of mutual coupling with parallel line sections, etc.

TOR 300 FLO is delivered in 1/of 19 inches housing  for fault location on 2 lines, or in 19” housing for complete fault location functionality on four lines. One or two such terminals can be installed into the cabinets.                                                                                                                         

Protected objects

  • 6-35 kV medium voltage lines in networks with isolated or compensated neutral point
  • HV, EHV and UHV transmission lines

Main functions

  • RFLO - automatic calculation of fault location on distances up to 800 km
  • selective and independent disturbance recording starting conditions
  • start by amplitude and incremental changes of currents, as well as with external signals
  • determination of fault locations on different line branches
  • calculating, memorizing and displaying the pre- and post-fault parameters
  • recalculation of fault location with changed setting groups on the user request
  • VT and CT circuits supervision
  • simultaneous operation of a few fault location modules
  • presented information:
    • distance to fault location
    • fault resistance
    • faulty phases
    • date and time of the fault
    • fault duration
    • impedance of complete faulty circuit
    • compilation and storage of fault location reports

Every IED has a built-in disturbance and event recording functions. It records all pre-defined analog and binary signals as well as starts and trips of protection functions during abnormal conditions. In addition to this it is possible to install a separate terminal (cabinet) as a centralized disturbance recorder for complete substation.

 TOR 300 DR has up to 48 analog inputs and a lot of binary inputs and outputs. Maximum duration of records is up to 400 s. All records are stored in non-volatile memory. In addition to standard disturbance recording function it is also possible to incorporate precise fault location function.

Primary equipment such as static VAR compensators (capacitor banks, shunt reactors and controlled shunt reactors) contributes to increased reliability of power systems. 

We offer main and backup protection solutions to protect such equipment:

  • 110 – 220 kV controlled shunt reactor main and backup protection
  • 110 – 220 kV capacitor bank main and backup protection
  • 110 – 220 kV capacitor bank (or controlled shunt reactor) backup protection with breaker control
  • 330 – 750 kV controlled shunt reactor main and backup protection
  • 330 – 750 kV shunt reactor main and backup protection
  • 330 – 750 kV compensating inductor protection and automation

Capacitor bank protection against internal faults is based on the TOR 300 CBP device. This solution includes main and backup protection as well as circuit breaker control. Protection solution can be adapted to various primary circuits of capacitor banks.

Main and backup protection of controlled shunt reactors is provided by TOR 300 CSR devices. These IEDs ensure protection of controlled shunt reactors against internal faults. They also protect LV busbars between CSR compensation winding and the main rectifier transformer.

Relematika can arrange specific PAC solutions combining capacitor bank protection and controlled shunt reactor protection by means of one IED.
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